|TIME CAPSULE FOR CHIEFS OF BALNAGOWAN|
|1371||A Charter by King David II confirmed the gift of lands of Rarichies from Hugh, 4th O'Beolan Earl of Ross, to his third son Hugh, who took the surname Ross from the name of the county. Gifts of the lands of Easter Allan and Balnagowan were confirmed from his brother Earl William.|
|1372||When his brother, William, 5th O'Beolan Earl of Ross, died in 1372, Hugh Ross of Rarichies and Balnagowan became the Chief of Clan Ross.|
|1374||William Ross became the 2nd Laird of Balnagowan and Chief of Clan Ross when his father died. William Ross died prior to 1398.|
|1384||John of Gaunt, son of Edward III, attacked Scotland.|
|1388||James, Earl Douglas, died out of sight of his army, in a bush, at Battle of Otterburn on August 5 in which Scots defeat Henry Percy, (Hotspur) but with the loss of the Earl of Douglas.|
|1390||On April 19, Robert II, grandson of Robert the Bruce, died at Dundonald Castle and was buried at Scone. King Robert III was crowned at the Augustinian abbey of Scone on August 14.|
|1396||The "Battle of the Clans" between clans Chattan and Kay on the North Inch, Perth, was fought in front of King Robert III on September 25.|
|1398||Walter Ross was granted the lands of Cullisse in Nigg when he became the 3rd Laird of Balnagowan. He married Katherine McTyre and received a dowry of the lands of Strathcarron, Strathoykel and Westray from Paul McTyre.
On June 2, Prince Henry St. Clair (Sinclair) landed in Nova Scotia, having sailed from Orkney.
|1401||The Duke of Rothesay, heir of Robert III, was murdered on April 3.|
|1402||Scots led by 4th Earl of Douglas were defeated at the Battle of Homildon Hill by an English army led by Percy 'Hotspur'.|
|1406||On March 30, King James I was captured by English near Flamborough Head on his way to France. King Robert III died on April 4, and James I ascended the throne (but was not crowned until 1424).|
|1411||At the Battle of Harlaw near Inverurie on July 24, Donald, Lord of the Isles fought an indecisive but bloody battle against the Earl of Mar.
The University of St. Andrew's was founded.
|1412||Hugh Ross, fourth Baron of Balnagowan, became Chief of Clan Ross upon his father's death.|
|1421||On March 22, a Scots army in France defeated an English force at Baugé|
|1423||A Treaty of London, released James I from his 18 years captivity in England.|
|1424||On February 13, King James I married Joan Beaufort, and he was crowned at Scone on May 2.|
|1437||King James I was murdered in Perth on February 21 by a group led by Sir Robert Graham. The Coronation of King James II (born on October 16, 1430) occurred at Kelso Abbey on March 25.|
|1448||The Franco-Scottish alliance was renewed at Tours in December.|
|1450||St. Salvator's College, St Andrew's University, was founded.|
|1451||Glasgow University was founded at the request of James II and Bishop Turnbull.|
|1452||King James II killed William Douglas at Stirling on February 22.|
|1460||King James II was killed by an exploding cannon at the seige of Roxburgh Castle On August 3, and King James III (born at Stirling on July 10, 1451) was crowned at Kelso Abbey one week later.|
|1462||Treaty of Westminster-Ardtornish was signed between the Lord of the Isles and Edward IV, the King of England.|
|1472||Orkney and Shetland were annexed from Norway.|
|1476||The Earldom of Ross was forfeited to the Crown, and there was much fighting in the Highlands. John Ross, fifth Laird of Balnagowan, was unsuccessful in attempts to recover the Earldom of Ross, and raids upon the territories of Ross continued during the time of the sixth Laird, Alexander Ross.|
|1486||In June, John MacKay felt duty bound by the clan code of honour to avenge the death of his father and a band of thieves, who had been burned in a church. The MacKays and Rosses fought a battle at Alt'a Charrais, where Alexander Ross, sixth Laird of Balnagowan and Chief of Clan Ross, was killed along with other leaders. A plot by the MacKays to rob their Sutherland allies of their share of the booty failed. The chief was succeeded by Sir David Ross, seventh Laird of Balnagowan.|
|1488||During the Battle of Sauchieburn on June 11, King James III died attempting to subdue a group of rebel barons. James IV (born on March 17, 1473) was crowned king at the age of 15 at Scone on June 26. He reigned until 1513 when he fell with the flower of Scotland's nobility at the Battle of Flodden Field. Walter, eighth Laird of Balnagowan, benefitted from the general prosperity of this king's reign.|
|1489||On November 29. Margaret, Queen of Scotland, was born.|
|1494||The University of Aberdeen was founded.|
|1503||King Henry VII of England gave his daughter Margaret Tudor in marriage to James IV of Scotland on August 8. This union gave rise to the Union of the Crowns in 1603.|
|1505||July 1, Edinburgh Council granted a charter to the "Barber Surgeons" enabling them to practise surgery within the city boundary and creating the basis for the Royal College of Surgeons.|
|1507||September 14, Edinburgh merchants were granted exclusive privilege of running a printing press.|
|1512||King James V was born on April 15. In the same year, under the terms of a treaty with France (reviving the "Auld Alliance" of 1295), all Scottish citizens became French and vice versa.|
|1513||On September 9, James IV was killed in battle at Flodden Field, near Branxton, in the English county of Northumberland. Twelve days later, King James V (born on April 15, 1512) was crowned at Stirling Castle.|
|1526||At the Battle of Melrose on Jule 25, Sir Walter Scott of Buccleuch (ancestor of the writer) attempted to rescue King James V from the clutches of Douglas, Earl of Angus.|
|1528||On February 29, Patrick Hamilton, a Protestant martyr, was burned at the stake in St Andrews. Walter, eighth Laird of Balnagowan, was slain at Tain in 1528, possibly during a clan feud. He was succeeded by his son Alexander Ross, the ninth Balnagowan Chief of Clan Ross. The relics of St. Duthus/Duthac were stored at the Castle, when the Presbyterian Church of Scotland became established in the area.|
|1537||On January 1, King James V married Magdalene of France.|
|1542||King James V sent a force of 10,000 into England which was defeated at Solway Moss by an English force led by Sir Thomas Wharton. James V died at Falkland Palace on December 14.|
|1543||The Treaty of Greenwich on July 1, between Henry VIII and Earl of Arran, Regent of Scotland, agreed to a betrothal of Mary Queen of Scots (aged 6 months) and Edward Prince of Wales (aged 6 years), but it was repudiated by the Scots Parliament. On September 9, Mary Queen of Scots (born on December 8, 1542, at Linlithgow Castle) was crowned at Stirling Castle.|
|1544||At the Battle of the Shirts between members of the Clan Fraser and Clans Ranald, Cameron and Donald, only 12 men out of 1,000 combatants are said to have survived.|
|1545||Scottish forces, led by the Earl of Douglas at the Battle of Ancrum Moor, defeated an English army twice their size on February 17.
Andrew Melville, "true father of Presbyterianism in Scotland", was born on August 1.
|1546||David Beaton, Archbishop of St Andrew's, was assassinated.|
|1547||The English defeated the Scots at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh, near Edinburgh, on September 10. The battle was sparked by English demands that Edward VI of England (aged 10) should marry Mary Queen of Scots (aged 5) - an event known as the "Rough Wooing". It is estimated that 15,000 Scots were killed, 1500 captured and English losses amounted to only 500.|
|1548||Treaty of Haddington on July 7 between France and Scotland confirmed the betrothal of Mary Queen of Scots and Dauphin of France.|
|1557||John Knox began the Reformation in Scotland. His sermon at Perth in 1559 is regarded as the actual beginning of the Reformation in Scotland.|
|1558||On April 24, Mary, Queen of Scots, married French Dauphin, Francis Valois (he was aged 14) at Notre Dame in Paris.
Walter Mylne was burned to death in St Andrew's, the last pre-Reformation martyr.
|1559||Mary Queen of Scots' husband, Francis, became King of France on July 10, sfter the death of King Henri of France.|
|1560||The Second Treaty of Berwick was signed between England and Scotland, providing English assistance to remove French forces of Mary of Guise from Scotland.
The Treaty of Edinburgh was signed between France and England (and Scotland and England), recognizing the sovereignty of Mary Queen of Scots and her first husband Francis II. He died on December 5 that year.
Latin Mass was prohibited in Scotland by Parliament as Protestant faith gained the ascendancy. The First General Assembly of the Church of Scotland was held on December 20.
|1561||On August 19, Mary Queen of Scots landed at Leith on her return from France, after the death of her husband, King Francis II|
|1562||At the Battle of Corrichie, the Earl of Moray defeated Catholic Gordons of Huntly who were attacking Aberdeen.|
|1565||Mary Queen of Scots met Lord Darnley for the first time in February. They married in July.|
|1566||On March 9, David Rizzio was murdered by Ruthven in the Palace of Holyrood. Mary Queen of Scots gave birth to the future King James VI of Scotland and I of England on June 19.|
|1567||Lord Darnley, Earl of Ross and husband of Mary Queen of Scots, was assassinated on February 10. Mary, Queen of Scots, married Earl of Bothwell (at 4am) on May 15. One month later, she was imprisoned at Loch Leven castle. Her son, James VI ascended to the throne on July 24. Five days later, he was crowned at Stirling (but aged just over one year).|
|1568||Mary Queen of Scots escaped from Loch Leven castle on May 2, and she was defeated on May 13 at the Battle of Langside.|
|1570||James Stewart, the Regent Moray on the abdication of Mary Queen of Scots, was murdered in Linlithgow, triggering civil war. On July 12, the Earl of Lennox appointed Regent of Scotland, and he was murdered in September.|
|1572||John Knox, leading reformer of Church of Scotland, died on November 24.|
|1576||The first Bible (New Testament) was printed in Scotland by Bassandyne.|
|1582||The University of Edinburgh was founded.|
|1586||Mary, Queen of Scots, recognised Philip II of Spain as her heir.|
|1587||On February 8, Mary Queen of Scots was beheaded at Fotheringay Castle.|
|1592||The wild and lawless chieftain, Alexander Ross, ninth Laird of Balnagowan, died at Ardmore and was buried at Fearn. Clan Ross was the largest of the Highland clans under the university-educated George Ross, tenth Laird of Balnagowan. Open feuds amongst neighbours continued.|
|1593||Marischal College, the second University in Aberdeen, was founded.|
|1600||Scotland adopted the Gregorian Calendar. Scotland celebrated its first New Year on January 1 (March 25 till then).|
|1603||At the Battle at Glenfruin on February 7, the MacGregors slaughtered a number of Colquhouns [the origins of the banning of the MacGregor name].
The Union of the Crowns of England and Scotland occurred upon the death of Queen Elizabeth I. On July 25, King James VI of Scotland was crowned as King of Great Britain and Ireland at Westminster Abbey, London.
|1605||On November 4, Guy Fawkes was arrested under the Houses of Parliament with 20 barrels of gunpowder to blow up parliament and the king. Parliament declared November 5 a day of public thanksgiving.|
|1615||George Ross, tenth Laird of Balnagowan, died and left his estate heavily encumbered with debts, the result of lawless behaviour and poor management. His successor, David Ross, eleventh Balnagowan chief was more law-abiding than either his father and grandfather had been, and his estates were erected into a Barony.|
|1617||Articles of religion, introducing Anglican principles into Scottish worship, were endorsed by Scottish parliament. James (on his only return to Scotland) tactlessly lectured his countrymen on the "superiority of English civilisation". In the following year he imposed Bishops on the Presbyterian Church of Scotland in an attempt to integrate it with the Church of England. This move was deeply unpopular with the Scots.|
|1621||A Charter was granted to Sir William Alexander of Menstrie to colonize the "Baronetcy of Nova Scotia".|
|1625||King James VI died at Theobalds Park, Hertfordshire and was buried at Westminster Abbey. Charles I became King upon the death of his father. Although born in Scotland, Charles had no interest in the country and dealt with Scottish affairs with even less tact than his father ... thus causing dissent.|
|1626||Charles I, (born in Dunfermline on November 19, 1600) was crowned at Westminster Abbey on February 2.|
|1632||The eleventh Balnagowan chief, Baron David Ross, died on November 20 and was buried in Fearn Abbey. David Ross, twelfth Chief of Clan Ross and Baron of Balnagowan, left his estate further in debt by outfitting a regiment of 800 clansmen to support Charles II in 1651.|
|1633||Coronation of King Charles I took place at at Holyrood on June 19. The future King James VII was born at St. James' Palace in London on October 14|
|1637||A new anglicised Scottish Prayer Book created social unrest and disorder.|
|1638||Charles regarded protests against the prayer book as treason, forcing Scots to choose between their church and the king. A "Second National Covenant", swearing to resist these changes to the death, was signed in Greyfriars Churchyard in Edinburgh. The covenant was accepted by hundreds if not thousands of Scots.|
|1639||Charles I called a General Assembly, effectively abolishing the unpopular Scottish Bishops. Agreement was reached through the "Treaty of Berwick". was forced to withdraw from Scotland and to recognize an independent Scottish Parliament.|
|1642||The Scots Guards Regiment was formed.|
|1643||A Solemn League and Covenant was made between the Scottish and the English parliaments for the preservation of Presbyterianism.|
|1649||In January, King Charles I was executed at Whitehall.|
|1651||Charles II (born at St. James' Palace in London on May 29, 1630) was crowned King of Scots at Scone on January 1 [the last coronation on Scottish soil]. The regiment of Clan Ross at the fatal Battle of Worcester was led by David Ross, 12th of Balnagowan in order to reinstate Charles II as King of England, but Cromwell's army was successful. Committed to the Tower of London, Chief David died after two years and was buried at Westminster in 1653.|
|1653||On December 16, Oliver Cromwell became the Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. Chief David Ross, thirteenth of Balnagowan, succeeded to the estates of his father at nine years of age.|
|1660||King Charles II returned to England on May 29, Royal Oak Day. A "Day of Public Thanksgiving" was held on June 19 upon the restoration of Charles II as king.|
|1661||Charles II was crowned at Westminster Abbey on April 23.|
|1665||Queen Anne, last of the Stuart monarchs, was born on February 6.|
|1673||King James VII married Mary of Modena on November 21.|
|1678||The Earl of Mar raised a regiment which later became the Royal Scots Fusiliers.|
|1679||After the "Declaration of Rutherglen" in May, the Covenanters rode into Rutherglen to put out the fires celebrating the anniversary of the restoration of King Charles II.|
|1681||General Tam Dalyell raised a regiment which later became the Royal Scots Greys.|
|1682||The National Library of Scotland was founded. Now it is one of the UK's four copyright deposit libraries.|
|1685||King Charles II died on February 6. James VII was crowned at Westminster Abbey on April 23.|
|1687||The Order of the Thistle was founded by King James VII.|
|1688||James Francis Stuart was born on June 10. In honour of the "Old Pretender", this is known as "White Rose Day" in Jacobite circles. William of Orange landed in South-West England in November. King James VII was deposed and he fled, dropping the Great Seal into the river Thames.|
|1689||William of Orange and Mary become joint sovereigns of the UK on January 22, and the Scottish Parliament declared that James VII had forfeited the Scottish throne. Jacobite uprisings followed.
The Earl of Leven raised a border regiment which later became the King's Own Scottish Borderers.
|1690||On July 12, William III defeated James VII in the Battle of the Boyne, Ireland.|
|1692||The Massacre at Glencoe took place on February 13; thirty-eight of the Clan Macdonald were slaughtered by government order. Earl of Stair, who was held responsible for the massacre of Glencoe, died on January 8, 1707.|
|1695||The Bank of Scotland was founded by an Act of the Scottish Parliament.|
|1701||The deposed King James VII died at Château de Saint Germain-en-Laye, near Paris, on September 6.|
|1706||The last Scottish Parliament in Edinburgh met from October until March, before the Union with Westminster. [Scotland regained its Parliament in 1999.]|
|1707||The Act of Union of English and Scottish parliaments was proclaimed on May 1, in which Scotland was formally united with England to form Great Britain. In doing so, the Scottish Parliament voted itself out of existence. Lord Ross of Hawkhead, one of the thirty-one commissioners, was not surprisingly involved in this act of complicity with the English.|
|1711||On April 17, David Ross, thirteenth of Balnagowan and Chief of Clan Ross, died without issue. Succession to Balnagowan then passed out of the hands of O'Beolan descendants.|