c.741-761 Pictish King Oengus I was the first king of both Picts and Scots; the creation of Alba (neither Pictland nor Scotland)
793 Beginning of the Norse Viking Invasions
834 Oengus II, while fighting the Norse in the north, was forced to split his land army to deal with a rebellion led by Alpin in the south ... Alpin was beheaded for his act of treason
839 Pictish royalty slain in battle near Perth by the Norsemen
841 Kenneth MacAlpin attacked the remnants of the Pictish army and defeated them; crowned as king in 843
845 MacAlpin's Treason ... the "banquet at Scone"; the Scottish kin's dominion included Fortrenn (Strathearn and Menteith), the Mearns and Dalriada; a rival Scots kindred, the Cenel Loairn, took control of Moray and Ross
858 February 13 - Kenneth MacAlpin, King of Dalriada and the Picts, died at Forteviot.
842-900 the mac Alpin (Ailpin/Alpine) dynasty became established; the Pictish church was replaced by the Scottish Columban Church, the Pictish languages and culture are basically forgotten within a few generations ... an early example of ethnic cleansing

1000 St. Duthac (St. Duthus) was born in Tain around this year. King James IV and his immediate successors made frequent barefoot pilgrimages across the Black Isle and by the King's Ferry to the shrine of St. Duthus in Tain between 1493 and 1513.
1005 March 25 - Malcolm II killed Kenneth III to become king of Scots
1018 Malcolm II battled the Saxons at Carham and took Lothian. King Owen-the-Bald of Strathclyde died. An army from Northumberland, seeking to recover Lothian which had been captured by King Malcolm II of Scotland, clashed with Malcolm at Carham on the river Tweed. The Scots were victorious and henceforth the river Tweed became accepted as the border between Scotland and England.
1034 November 25 - Duncan I, ruler of Strathclyde, killed his grandfather Malcolm II at Glamis to become King of Scots
1040 Macbeth, Mormaer of Moray, killed his cousin Duncan I in a battle at Pitgavney, near Elgin, to become King of Alba (1040 - 1057)
1057 August 15 - Macbeth was killed in battle by Malcolm III at Lumphanan, near Aberdeen. On the same day, Lulach, Macbeth's stepson, ascended the throne and was crowned at Scone.
1058 March 17 - King Lulach was killed by Malcolm III at Essier, Strathbogie. Malcolm III (Ceann-mor) was crowned on April 25, 1058.
1066 the Norman invasion of England; concepts of feudalism spread rapidly
1058-1093 King Malcolm III Canmore of Scots proposed that clan chiefs be named from (or give their names to) their duthus; the land of Ross already had a St. Duthus and the people at the heartland of the clan became named from the land; Malcolm's second wife, Margaret, is almost single-handedly responsible for the disappearance of the ancient Culdees of the Scottish Columban Church, for which she was made a saint by the Church of Rome; the form of patrilineal inheritance and succession is established with difficulty in the face of northern rebellions** and with the sacrifice of Scottish independence through feudal subservience to an English King
1093 November 13 - King Malcolm III (Canmore) was ambushed and killed at Alnwick, Northumbria. Queen Margaret died in Edinburgh during the same year.
1094 November 12 - King Duncan II died at Battle of Monthechin, Kincardine.
1107 January 8 - King Alexander I was crowned.
1124 April 23 - King Alexander I died at Stirling Castle, and was succeeded by David I.
1160 There were many challenges to the MacAlpin dynasty from the Mormaerdom of Moray until 1160, when the Clan Ross was established as the first erected clan in the time of Malcolm Macbeth. The clan of Ross was raised in status from one of the seven ancient paired districts of Alba by Malcolm IV.

© J. Douglas Ross Email: <jdr(at)greatclanross(dot)org>